錄像短片拍攝坊(第一階段) - 表演藝術教案分享

適合高小至高中學生

建議參與人數﹕十至二十人

(分五至六人一小組)

重點學習:電影語言、畫面構圖及鏡頭運動的方式

學習目標:

通過簡單的理論教授,讓學生認識到電影語言及鏡頭的運用等,幫助學生掌握基本拍攝的技巧。完成首階段工作坊後,同學根據指引,在限定的時間內,各自製作一段三至五分鐘的短片,並以放映會的形式播放,共同分享成果。

活動所需時間:

活動分三個階段進行,第一階段為三小時的工作坊,介紹基本拍攝的技巧;第二階段為實踐學習,同學自行拍攝及製作短片;第三階段為一個半小時的放映會。

以下為第一階段工作坊之內容:

課前準備:


  1. 手提攝錄機/具拍攝功能的數碼相機、腳架(每小組一套)
  2. 預備所需參考影片
  3. 活動場地需要有投影機及電腦,以連接攝錄機

教授方法要略:


  1. 講述教學 (Lecture)
  2. 示範教學 (Demonstration)
  3. 互助學習 (Cooperative learning)
  4. 親身體驗學習 (Hands-on learning)
  5. 多媒體教學 (Multimedia instruction)
  6. 問題導向學習 (Problem Solving)

內容

時間 教學目標
(完成活動後,學生應能掌握以下技巧及了解以下知識)
教學活動/內容 重點提示 備註
15 分鐘 提升學生的參與及互動能力 1) 熱身遊戲
  • 將同學平均分成小組
  • 每組獲分派一張電影宣傳海報,各組分派人物,以定格畫面的形式呈現海報的內容及人物造型
  • 各組展現定格畫面
  • 各組再以定格畫面,呈現該電影中的一個場面。
選擇以動作及有豐富畫面的電影較合適,選用近期電影可令學生更投入。 同學可運用簡單的道具及衣物,幫助呈現人物及畫面
 
5分鐘 認識「電影語言」 2) 甚麼是「電影語言」?
  • 「語言」是一個比喻,是溝通的方法 。
  • 把故事或訊息傳送給觀眾,要透過某種特定的「語言」。劇本是以文字作為溝通的方法,而電影是以影像為主。
  • 換句話說,運用「電影語言」將劇本(文字或意念)轉化成為電影(影像)。
   
 
5分鐘 了解「電影語言」的組成元素 3) 「電影語言」的組成元素
  • 電影由影像配合聲音而成,影像方面,有鏡頭大小、角度、構圖 (framing)、鏡頭運動、分鏡、剪接的節奏等電影語言。聲音方面,則有音效及音樂等。
  • 鏡頭可算是電影最基本的單元。
  • 電影運用影像及聲音去描述及形容,使抽象的感覺能夠有效地表達和展現。
   
 
5分鐘 認識鏡頭的大小、角度及運動,如何呈現不同的視覺效果及感覺 4) 何謂鏡頭 (Shot)
  • 電影,展現故事 (story),故事則由場景 (scene) 組成,而組成場景的就是個別的鏡頭 (shot)。一齣電影,就是以不同形式的鏡頭組成。
  • 電影的鏡頭是導演和觀眾共同的一雙「眼睛」。導演是負責控制這雙「眼睛」的人。他的責任,就是決定觀眾透過這雙「眼睛」去看甚麼的。
準備合適的參考電影片段,配合講解時播放  
 
5分鐘 認識鏡頭的大小、角度及運動,如何呈現不同的視覺效果及感覺 5) 鏡頭大小
  • 遠景 (wide shot):
    通常用來交代/介紹環境 (establish shot)、表現出主體/主角與環境的關係。給觀眾的感覺相對冷靜。
  • 全身景 (full shot):
    通常用來交代主體/主角的外觀。
  • 中景 (medium shot):
    通常用來表現主體/主角的某些上半身的動作。
  • 特寫 (close up):
    通常用來表現或强調某些重要的表情/動作/部位。特寫的壓迫力較大,給予觀眾的感覺相對強烈。
以即場攝播(Live Feed)的形式,介紹每個鏡頭的特性。單以每個獨立的鏡頭,畫面呈現可表達甚麼的內容,讓同學想像一下。 可以預先準備合適的電影片段 (當中可包括以上的鏡頭),配合講解時播放。
 
5分鐘 認識鏡頭的大小、角度及運動,如何呈現不同的視覺效果及感覺 6) 鏡頭角度
  • 拍攝時,放置鏡頭的不同角度,在觀眾的視覺心理上會產生不同的效果。
  • 低角度拍攝:
    攝影機位置比主角人物的視平(eye level) 為低,那是一個仰視的角度。被拍攝的主角人物,頓時變得高高在上或看起來高大威猛。
  • 高角度拍攝:
    攝影機位置於主角人物視平之上,即是從高向低望的角度。被拍攝的主角像是垂頭喪氣似的,觀眾會覺得主角的地位低微。
根據鏡頭角度的描述,可邀請同學即場拍攝示範。啟發同學說出不同鏡頭大小的感覺或所呈現的氣氛,同學能即時想像主角的身份及處境。
 
5分鐘 認識鏡頭的大小、角度及運動,如何呈現不同的視覺效果及感覺 7) 主觀鏡頭 (Point-of-view/POV shot)
  • 以攝影機為角色的視點,鏡頭所拍攝的,就如角色所見的一樣,這稱之為主觀鏡頭。
  • 這種鏡頭可讓觀眾代入角色,從角色的視點看事物。這種拍攝手法,經常運用在恐怖片中。因為,能讓觀眾代入角色,那恐怖的效果會更強烈。
根據主觀鏡頭的描述,邀請同學即場拍攝示範,想像主觀人物的身份及處境。  
 
5分鐘 認識鏡頭的大小、角度及運動,如何呈現不同的視覺效果及感覺 8) 鏡頭運動 (camera movement)
如何移動攝影機?
主要分為以下四種方法:
  1. 放置在三角架上。拍攝出來的畫面穩定性較高,亦易於控制,但靈活性及流動性較少。
  2. 軌道 (track/dolly)。攝影機置於可穩定地流動的路軌車或輪椅上,基本移動有橫向及向主體近遠。
  3. 升降枱 (crane)。攝影機置於升降枱,移動的軌跡基本是高低升降。
  4. 手提 (hand held),由攝影師手提 攝影機,靈活地調節與主體的拍攝距離、角度及鏡頭大小。但較不穩定,畫面會有搖晃的效果。
分別以圖片解說不同的運動。 可以預先準備合適的電影片段 (當中可包括以上的鏡頭),配合講解時播放。
 
5分鐘 認識鏡頭的大小、角度及運動,如何呈現不同的視覺效果及感覺 9) 鏡頭運動的效果
導演或攝影師,根據劇情的需要來調度鏡頭的運動。
例如:
  1. 由遠景拉近(zoom in)至特寫鏡頭,可把觀眾的集中力由寬闊聚焦到該特寫
  2. 手提拍攝可以拍出如新聞採訪,置身現場的真實感。
根據鏡頭運動的描述,邀請同學即場拍攝示範,試看效果。  
 
10分鐘 認識如何以分鏡的方式,組成一個用畫面來說故事的方法 10) 分鏡
  • 首先,導演要主動地帶領觀眾去「看」,鏡頭就是觀眾的「眼睛」。導演在何時讓觀眾看到甚麼的畫面及內容,這就是分鏡的基本原則。
  • 分鏡是在實際拍攝前,以故事圖格的方式來說明影像的構成,將連續的畫面,拆解為個別運鏡單位,並且標註運鏡方式、時間長度、對白及特別效果等。
  • 導演在拍攝前或拍攝時,決定用甚麼鏡頭大小、角度及鏡頭運動去表現一系列鏡頭,再將它們接合起來。
  • 雖然,鏡頭是電影最基本的單元,但仍需將鏡頭剪接,才可以成為完整的故事。
示範如何繪製故事圖格,又或是以連環圖的方式展示分鏡 故事圖格樣本
 

小休

拍攝活動小組實習及短片即時呈現(約120分鐘)

時間 教學目標
(完成活動後,學生應能掌握以下技巧及了解以下知識)
教學活動/內容 重點提示 備註
10 分鐘 明白拍攝的題目及內容 1) 講解拍攝的內容

同學分為五至六人一組的拍攝小隊

短片題目及內容:

《嚇到飛起》(片長三至五分鐘)

放學後,學生三五成群離開校園。同學甲坐在校園一角,正等待同學乙一起回家。學習了整天,同學甲身體疲累,看過手錶後就打了個呵欠,盡力不讓自己睡著,但眼皮卻不由自主地合上了……

同學乙從遠處走過來,看見同學甲睡著,頭搖搖欲墜,形象趣緻可愛。同學乙不禁擠出燦爛的笑容,突然,想出點子來。同學乙從袋裏拿出一本記事簿,然後小心翼翼地走到同學甲的身後,不讓他發現。但原來同學甲沒有熟睡,已看見同學乙的身影。同學乙在同學甲的身後舉起記事簿,準備大力拍打他之際,同學甲突然轉身扮鬼臉,同學乙嚇得連記事簿也脫手飛落在地上。同學甲看見,大笑起來。

(老師可自行設定短片題目及內容)

建議同學拍攝同一短片題目及內容,較容易比較每組同學的拍攝手法和技巧 老師亦可嘗試先自拍一段作示範,並供同學參考。
 
20分鐘 製作簡單的故事圖格,並據拍攝的需要而分工 2) 分工、組織拍攝及設計分鏡頭
  • 每組同學共用一部手提攝錄機/具拍攝功能的數碼相機及一枝腳架。
  • 拍攝前,同學可先分配崗位,例如導演、攝影及演員等。
  • 製作簡單的故事圖格,例如攝影機要從哪個角度切入或帶出、攝影機要怎樣移動、拍攝內容的長度及時間、選擇合適的拍攝場地等。
  • 設計短片需要運用的鏡頭大小、拍攝角度及鏡頭運動等。
可按同學的專長分工 分鏡圖格表、筆
 
40分鐘 運用各種拍攝技巧 3) 開始拍攝
  • 可於拍攝前綵排
老師可在旁指導及給予意見;把握運用時間
 
40分鐘
(視乎組別數目)
學習互相評論及分享 4) 拍攝分享
  • 傳送拍攝檔案至播放器材
  • 播放短片
可讓同學分享拍攝時的樂趣及困難,提議有甚麼可以改善的地方,集思廣益  
 
10分鐘 總結過程,分享過程中的得著及感想 5) 活動學習評估及解說
  • 總結,根據同學在短片中的拍攝技巧及鏡頭運用等,給予意見。
  • 同學分享工作坊過程中的感受。
  • 吩咐同學安排時間,拍攝及剪接《嚇到飛起》,並擇日以放映會的形式,展示完整的作品。
   
 

參考書籍:

  • Louis D. Giannetti著,焦雄屏等譯,《認識電影》(最新修訂第十版),台北 : 遠流出版事業股份有限公司,2005年。
  • David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson著,曾偉禎譯,《電影藝術》,台北:麥格羅希爾,2001年。
  • Mckee R. (1998) Story: Substance, Structure, Style and the Principles of Screenwriting, London: Methuen

下載教案 »

鳴謝:
香港演藝學院電影電視學院

Short Film Making Workshop (First Stage)
- Performing Arts Teaching and Learning Resources

Suitable for upper primary to upper secondary school students

Suggested number of participants : 10 to 20

(5 to 6 in a group)

Key Learning Areas: cinematographic language, framing and camera movement

Learning Objectives:

Enabling students to understand filmmaking principles, such as cinematographic language and cinematic techniques, through simple theoretical learning, which in turn helps them master basic shooting techniques. By the end of the first-stage workshop, each group of students is required to produce a short film of 3 to 5 minutes based on the given guidelines. A screening section is to be held to share students’ products.

Duration:

The programme is divided into three stages. The first stage comprises a three-hour workshop, which is an introduction of the basic shooting techniques. The second stage is for students to apply what they have learned to the shooting and producing a short film. The third stage is a 30-minute screening section. The contents of the workshop in the first stage are as follows:

Preparation:


  1. Hand-held camera or digital camera with video recording function and a tripod (one set in each group)
  2. Reference films
  3. Venue equipped with a projector and a computer to be connected with video camera

Teaching Methods:


  1. Lecture
  2. Demonstration
  3. Cooperative learning
  4. Hands-on learning
  5. Multimedia instruction
  6. Problem Solving

Lesson Plan:

Theoretical Learning (About 60 minutes)

Time Learning Objectives Learning Activities Key Points Remarks
15 mins To enhance participation and interaction 1) Warm-up Activity
  • Divide students into small equal-number groups.
  • Each group is given a film poster and each group’s representatives are to imitate the tableau on the poster with the appropriate character style.
  • Each group presents the tableau.
  • Each group presents a scene in the film based on the tableau.
Action-oriented films with visually rich scenes are preferable. Choosing recent films can help engage students. Students can make use of simple props and costumes to present the characters and the scene.
 
5 mins To learn about what is ‘cinematographic language’ 2) Introducing what is ‘cinematographic language’
  • ‘Language’ is a metaphor. It is a means of communication.
  • A specific ‘language’ is needed to tell a story or get across your messages to the audience. Scripts communicate via words, and films communicate via images.
  • In other words, it is to make use of ‘cinematographic language’ to convert the script (words or ideas) to a film (images).
   
 
5mins To understand the elements in ‘cinematographic language’ 3) To understand the elements in ‘cinematographic language’
  • Films are made up of images and sounds. Images encompass ‘cinematographic language’, such as the size of the shot, angles, framing, camera movement, storyboard, the rhythm created by editing. Sounds encompass sound effects and music.
  • Shot is the fundamental component in filmmaking.
  • Film depicts and describes through images and sounds, which in turn effectively visualizing and expressing abstract feelings.
   
 
5mins To learn about the size, angles and movements of the shot, and how to visualize different visual effects and feelings. 4) What is ‘shot’
  • A film tells a story. A story is composed of scenes. A scene comprises individual shots. A film is made up of a variety of shots.
  • A film shot is the ‘eyes’ of both the director and the audience. The director is the one who controls the ‘eyes’. His responsibility is to decide what the audience see through the ‘eyes’.
Prepare suitable film footage to supplement the explanations.  
 
5mins To learn about the size, angles and movements of the shot, and how to visualize different visual effects and feelings. 5) Shot size
  • Wide shot: to bring in the context, to establish the relationship between the subject and its context. Establish shot gives audience a sense of relative calmness.
  • Full shot: to show the appearance of the subject/ protagonist.
  • Medium shot: to show the activities of the upper body of the subject/ protagonist.
  • Close up: to establish or highlight certain important facial expressions/ movements/ parts. Close up is relatively overpowering which gives audience a more vivid impression.
Introduce the characteristics of every kind of shots by means of live feed. Present a single shot and ask students to imagine the meaning that shot is able to express. Can prepare in advance suitable film footage (that include the shots mentioned) to supplement the explanations.
 
5mins To learn about the size, angles and movements of the shot, and how to visualize different visual effects and feelings. 6) Shot angle
  • The different positions of the shot in the filming process can bring different visual and psychological effects to audience.
  • Low-angle shot:
    The camera is placed below the eye level of the protagonist. The camera looks upwards from below. This gives the protagonist in front of the camera a sense of superiority or makes the protagonist look tall and mighty.
  • High-angle shot:
    The camera is placed above the eye level of the protagonist. The camera looks downwards from above. This makes the protagonist look dejected. It would give audience the impression that the protagonist is inferior.
Invite students to demonstrate the shot with the camera according to the shot angle described. Guide students to point out the feelings and atmosphere conveyed by different shot angles. Ask students to imagine the protagonist’s status and the situation he/ she is under.
 
5mins To learn about the size, angles and movements of the shot, and how to visualize different visual effects and feelings. 7) Subjective Point-of-view (POV) shot
  • The camera is used as the character’s POV. Everything in the shot is everything the character see. This is called subjective POV shot.
  • Subjective POV shot allows audience to identify with the character and see from his/her POV. It is often adopted in horror films, since the sense of horror can be intensified by letting audience identify with the character.
According to the subjective POV shot described, invite students to demonstrate the shot with the camera. Ask students to imagine the protagonist’s status and the situation he/ she is under.  
 
5mins To learn about the size, angles and movements of the shot, and how to visualize different visual effects and feelings. 8) Camera movement
How to move the camera?
There are four main approaches:
  1. Place the camera on a tripod to capture the scene with a steady frame. It is easy to control but with less flexibility and mobility.
  2. Use a track or dolly. Place the camera on a steadily moving dolly on a track. The basic motions include horizontal movement and the zooming in or out of the subject.
  3. Place the camera on a crane to allow upwards and downwards movement.
  4. Use a hand-held camera to flexibly adjust the distance, the angle and shot size between the camera and the subject. Yet, the unsteadiness would result in shaky shots.
Use different images to explain various camera movements. Can prepare in advance suitable film footage (that include the movements mentioned) to supplement the explanations.
 
5mins To learn about the size, angles and movements of the shot, and how to visualize different visual effects and feelings. 9) Effects of different camera movements
The director or cameraman adjusts the camera movement according to the need of the story. For instance:
  1. Zooming in allows audience to shift their focus from the wide shot to the close up.
  2. Shooting with hand-held camera gives the impression of journalistic footage and a realistic feeling of being at the scene.
With reference to the different camera movements described, invite students to demonstrate the shot with the camera to observe its effects.  
 
10mins To learn about how to divide shots to achieve narrative with scenes. 10) Storyboard
  • First of all, the director needs to take the initiatives to lead the audience to ‘see’. The lens is the ‘eye’ of the audience. The fundamental principle of storyboard lies in what and when the director wants the audience to see the scene and its contents.
  • Composed before the shooting, storyboard is panels of narrative images to explain scene construction. It divides consecutive shots into individual shots and annotating them with camera movement, duration, dialogue, special effects, etc.
  • Before or during the shooting, the director decides the shot size, angles and camera movements to achieve a series of shots, which will be connected together.
  • While shot is the fundamental component in filmmaking, editing is necessary to achieve a complete story.
To demonstrate how to draw a storyboard or to use consecutive images to display a storyboard. Samples of storyboards
 

Short break

Shooting section in groups and short film screenings (around 120 minutes)

Time Learning Objectives Learning Activities Key Points Remarks
10 mins To understand the theme and contents of the shooting 1) Explain the shooting contents

Students divide into a shooting crew of 5 to 6.

Short film title and contents:
Scare Stiff (Duration: 3 to 5 minutes)

After school, students leave the campus in groups. Student A sits at a corner on campus waiting for Student B to go home together. After a day of lessons, Student A is exhausted. He yawns after looking at his watch. He tries hard not to fall asleep, yet his eyes close uncontrollably...

Student B walks close from afar. He sees Student A who is sleeping with his head swaying, looking cute. Suddenly, Student B has an idea. He produces a notebook from his bag and walks behind Student A. But in fact, Student A is half-awake and can see Student B. As Student B raises his notebook to hit Student A, Student A suddenly turns around and pulls a face. Student B is so scared that he drops the notebook on the floor. Seeing the scene, Student A laughs out loud.

(Teachers can pick their own theme and contents for the short films)

It is advised that students shoot their short film with the same theme and contents to allow easier comparisons among their shooting approaches and techniques. Teachers can also shoot a sample short film in advance for students’ reference.
 
20mins Make a simple storyboard and divide work according to the needs of shooting 2) Divide work and organise shooting and designing camera work
  • Each group makes use of one hand-held camera or digital camera with video recording function and a tripod.
  • Before shooting, students can assign different posts, e.g. director, cameraman and actors.
  • Make a simple storyboard, e.g. from which angle the camera cuts in or fade out, how the camera moves, shooting contents, duration and time, the choice of shooting venue.
  • Design the shot size, angle and movement of the shots necessary for the short film.
Can distribute the work according to students’ strengths. Paper for drawing storyboard and pens
 
40mins Make use of different shooting techniques 3) Start shooting
  • Rehearsals can be done before shooting
Teachers give guidelines and suggestions in the process, while reminding students to make good use of the time.
40 mins (depending on the number of the groups) To learn to comment others’ work and share experience 4) Sharing section
  • Transfer the short film files to projection devices
  • Play the short films
Let students share the fun and difficult parts during the shooting. Suggest possible ways to improve by collecting students’ opinions.  
 
10mins Summarize the process, share things learnt and the feelings involved 5) Evaluation and Review
  • Summarize and give suggestions according to the shooting techniques and camera movements in students’ short films.
  • Let students share their experience of the workshop
  • Ask students to arrange time to shoot and edit Scare Stiff and fix a date for the screenings to share their works.
   
 

Reference:

  • Giannetti, L. D. (2005) Understanding movies, Upper Saddle River, NJ : Pearson/Prentice Hall
  • Bordwell, D. & Thompson, K. (1993) Film art : an introduction, New York ; McGraw-Hill
  • Mckee R. (1998) Story: Substance, Structure, Style and the Principles of Screenwriting, London: Methuen

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Acknowledgement:
The School of Film and Television, HKAPA