John Biggs’ “Constructive Alignment” is an example of outcomes-based education (OBE) and widely used by Higher education in western countries and Hong Kong.
The framework of constructive alignment (Biggs, 1996) focuses on three key elements of curriculum design:
- Intended learning outcomes - what should the students know or be able to do?
- Teaching and learning activities - how will the students learn?
- Assessment - how will learning be measured?